## Editing basics

### Review policy and conventions

Make sure that you submit information which is relevant to the theme of the wiki, or your content might be deleted. You can always use the talk pages to ask questions or check to see if your idea will be accepted.

### Start editing

To start editing a page, click the Edit link. This brings you to the edit page: a page with a text box containing the wikitext - the editable code from which the server produces the finished page. If you just want to experiment, please do so in the Sandbox, not here.

You can just type your text. However, also using basic wiki markup (examples of which can be found below) adds to the value of your contribution.

Write a short edit summary in the small field below the edit-box. You may use shorthand to describe your changes, as described in Wikipedia's edit summary legend.

### Preview before saving

When you have finished, click Show preview to see how your changes will look before you make them permanent. Repeat the edit/preview process until you are satisfied, then click Save page and your changes will be immediately applied to the article.

### Dummy edit and null edit

If the wikitext is not changed, no edit will be recorded and the edit summary is discarded. A dummy edit is a change in wikitext that has no effect on the rendered page, such as changing the number of newlines at some position from 0 to 1 or from 2 to 3 or conversely (changing from 1 to 2 makes a difference, see below). This allows an edit summary, and is useful for correcting a previous edit summary, or an accidental marking of a previous edit as "minor" (see below).
To refresh the cache of some item in the database a lesser kind of dummy edit, called a null edit, may be sufficient: one that does not cause any change in the wikitext, and no entry in the history, in Recent Changes, etc.: this can be done by opening the edit window and saving; a section edit is sufficient.

### Minor edits

When editing a page, a logged-in user has the option of flagging the edit as a "minor edit". This feature is important, because users can choose to hide minor edits in their view of the Recent Changes page, to keep the volume of edits down to a manageable level.
Deciding when to use this features is a matter of personal preference. The rule of thumb is that an edit of a page that consists of spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearranging of text should be flagged as a "minor edit". A major edit is basically something that makes the entry worth revisiting for somebody who wants to watch the article rather closely. So any "real" change, even if it is a single word, should be flagged as a "major edit".
The reason for not allowing a user who is not logged in to mark an edit as minor is that vandalism could then be marked as a minor edit, in which case it would stay unnoticed longer. This limitation is another reason to log in.

## Wiki markup

In the left column of the table below, you can find a series of Wiki markup examples. In the right column, you can see the resulting output. In other words, to make text look like it looks in the right column, type it in the format you see in the left column. You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference. If you want to try out things without danger of doing any harm, you can do so in the Sandbox.

### Basic formatting

Wiki markup Output
You can ''italicize text'' by putting 2
apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold '''the text'''.

5 apostrophes will bold and italicize
'''''the text'''''.


You can italicize text by putting 2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold the text.

5 apostrophes will bold and italicize the text.

A single
newline
has no
effect on the
layout.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.


A single newline has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

You can break lines<br />
without starting a new paragraph.


You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it. You can do this by
~~~

Four for user name plus date/time:<br />
~~~~

Five for date/time:<br />
~~~~~


When adding a comment to a Talk page, you should sign it. You can do this by adding three tildes for your user name:
User

Four for user name plus date/time:
User 10:02, tháng 10 22, 2021 (UTC)

Five for date/time:
10:02, tháng 10 22, 2021 (UTC)

### Sections, lists, lines, and footnotes

Wiki markup Output
===New section==

===Subsection===

====Sub-subsection====


New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection

* ''Unordered lists'' are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars indicate a deeper level.
*: Previous item continues.
** A newline
* in a list
marks the end of the list.
* Of course you can start again.

• Unordered lists are easy to do:
• Start every line with a star.
• More stars indicate a deeper level.
Previous item continues.
• A newline
• in a list

marks the end of the list.

• Of course you can start again.
# ''Numbered lists'' are:
## Very organized
## Easy to follow
A newline marks the end of the list.
# New numbering starts with 1.

1. Numbered lists are:
1. Very organized
2. Easy to follow

A newline marks the end of the list.

1. New numbering starts with 1.
*You can even do mixed lists
*#and nest them
*#*like this<br />or include newlines

• You can even do mixed lists
1. and nest them
• like this
or include newlines
Here's a definition list:
; Word : Definition of the word
; A longer phrase needing definition
: Phrase defined
; A word : Which has a definition
: Also a second one
: And even a third

Begin with a semicolon. One item per line;
a newline can appear before the colon, but
using a space before the colon improves
parsing.


Here's a definition list:

Word
Definition of the word
A longer phrase needing definition
Phrase defined
A word
Which has a definition
Also a second one
And even a third

Begin with a semicolon. One item per line; a newline can appear before the colon, but using a space before the colon improves parsing.

: A colon (:) indents a line or paragraph.
A newline starts a new paragraph. <br>
Often used for discussion on talk pages.
: We use 1 colon to indent once.
:: We use 2 colons to indent twice.
::: 3 colons to indent 3 times, and so on.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

A colon (:) indents a line or paragraph.

A newline starts a new paragraph.
Often used for discussion on talk pages.

We use 1 colon to indent once.
We use 2 colons to indent twice.
3 colons to indent 3 times, and so on.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

A horizontal dividing line: above
----
and below.


A horizontal dividing line: above

and below.

You can add footnotes to sentences using
the ''ref'' tag -- this is especially good
for citing a source.

:There are over six billion people in the
world.<ref>CIA World Factbook, 2006.</ref>

References: <references/>


You can add footnotes to sentences using the ref tag -- this is especially good for citing a source.

There are over six billion people in the

world.[1]

References:
1. CIA World Factbook, 2006.

Wiki markup Output
[[Gregory House]] is an "internal link".


Gregory House is an "internal link".

Endings are blended into the link:
[[Gregory House]]'s nickname is Greg.


Endings are blended into the link: Gregory House's nickname is Greg.

You can put formatting around a link.
Example: ''[[Gregory House]]''.


You can put formatting around a link. Example: Gregory House.

The ''first letter'' of an article is automatically
capitalized, so [[gregory House]] goes to the same place
as [[Gregory House]]. Capitalization matters after the
first letter.


The first letter of an articles is automatically capitalized, so gregory House goes to the same place as Gregory House. Capitalization matters after the first letter.


Automatically hide namespaces:


[[Bob]] is a page that doesn't exist yet.


Bob is a page that doesn't exist yet.

Redirect one article to another:<br />
#REDIRECT [[target_page]]


Redirect one article to another:
target_page

A link to a page on another wiki:<br />
[[Wikipedia:Gregory House]]


A link to a page on another wiki:
Wikipedia:Gregory House

"What links here" and "Related changes"


You can make an external link just by typing a URL:
http://www.fox.com

You can give it a title:

Or leave the title blank:
[http://www.fox.com]


You can make an external link just by typing a URL: http://www.fox.com

You can give it a title: Fox Broadcasting Company

Or leave the title blank: [1]

Linking to an e-mail address works the same way:
mailto:someone@domain.com or
[mailto:someone@domain.com someone]


Linking to an e-mail address works the same way: mailto:someone@domain.com or someone

Category links do not show up in line
but instead at page bottom ''and cause the page to be
listed in the category.''
[[Category:House Wiki]]

without causing the page to be listed in the category:
[[:Category:House Wiki]]


Category links do not show up in line but instead at page bottom and cause the page to be listed in the category.

Add an extra colon to link to a category in line without causing the page to be listed in the category: Category:House Wiki

The Wiki reformats linked dates to match the reader's
date preferences. These three dates will show up the
same if you choose a format in your
[[Special:Preferences|]]:
* July 20, 1969
* 20 July 1969
* 1969-07-20


The Wiki reformats linked dates to match the reader's date preferences. These three dates will show up the same if you choose a format in your Preferences:

• July 20, 1969
• 20 July 1969
• 1969-07-20
To link to books, use
ISBN 0123456789X


ISBN 0123456789X

### Images, media, and tables

Wiki markup Output
Display an image:<br />
[[Image:Wiki.png]]


Display an image:

Resize an image:<br />
[[Image:Wiki.png|50px]]


Resize an image:

Align an image:<br />
[[Image:Wiki.png|50px|right]]


Align an image:

A framed image:<br />
[[Image:Wiki.png|frame]]


A framed image:

Add an image caption:<br />
[[Image:Wiki.png|frame|This is an image.]]


A thumbnail image:<br />
[[Image:Wiki.png|thumb|100px|Logo.]]


A thumbnail image:

An image gallery:<br />
<gallery>
Image:Wiki.png|Logo of this wiki.
Image:Smallwikipedialogo.png|Small version of Wikipedia's logo.
</gallery>


An image gallery:

Link to an image description page:<br />
[[:Image:Wiki.png]]


Link to an image description page:
Image:Wiki.png

Link directly to an image:<br />
[[media:Wiki.png]]


media:Wiki.png

To link to non-image uploads,
you also use a "media" link:<br/>
[[media:mediafile.ogg]]


media:mediafile.ogg

{| border="1" cellspacing="0"
! This
! is
|-
| a
| table
|}

This is
a table

### HTML tags

You can use some HTML tags as well. However, you should avoid HTML in favor of Wiki markup whenever possible.

Wiki markup Output
<i>italics</i><br />
<b>bold</b>


italics
bold

Put text in a <tt>typewriter
font</tt>. The same font is
generally used for <code>
computer code</code>.


Put text in a typewriter font. The same font is generally used for  computer code.

<strike>Strike out</strike>
or <u>underline</u> text,
or write it <span style=
"font-variant:small-caps">
in small caps</span>.


Strike out or underline text, or write it in small caps.

Superscripts and subscripts:
X<sup>2</sup>, H<sub>2</sub>O


Superscripts and subscripts: X2, H2O

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


You can use small text for captions.

<center>Centered text</center>

Centered text
<blockquote>
The '''blockquote''' command will indent
both margins when needed instead of the
left margin only as the colon does.
</blockquote>


The blockquote command will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

Invisible comments to editors (<!-- -->)
only appear while editing the page.
<!-- Note to editors: blah blah blah. -->


Invisible comments to editors (<!-- -->) only appear while editing the page.

### Character formatting

Wiki markup Output
'''Umlauts and accents:'''<br />
è é ê ë ì í

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;


Umlauts and accents:
è é ê ë ì í

À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

'''Punctuation:'''<br />
&iquest; &iexcl; &laquo; &raquo; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; - &ndash; &mdash;


Punctuation:
¿ ¡ « » § ¶
† ‡ • - – —

'''Commercial symbols:'''<br />
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

'''Greek characters:''' <br />
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho;  &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

'''Math characters:''' <br/>
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr; &uarr;


Math characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔ ↑

'''Complicated formulae:'''<br/>
$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


Complicated formulae:

### Preformatted text

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki software to display your text just as you typed it.

Wiki markup Output
<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores
[[wikipedia:Wiki|Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by
removing
newlines    and multiple
spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>


The nowiki tag ignores [[Wikipedia:Wiki|Wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

<pre>
The pre tag ignores [[Wikipedia:Wiki|Wiki]]
''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat
text.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</pre>

The pre tag ignores [[Wikipedia:Wiki|Wiki]]
''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat
text.
It still interprets special
characters: →

Leading spaces are another way
to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the
beginning of each
line stops the text
from being
reformatted.  It still
interprets [[Wikipedia:Wiki|Wiki]]
''markup'' and special
characters: &rarr;


Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the
beginning of each
line stops the text
from being
reformatted.  It still
interprets Wiki
markup and special
characters: →


## Templates

Templates are segments of Wiki markup that are meant to be automatically ("transcluded") into a page. You add them by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}. Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character.

## Tips and tricks

### Page protection

In a few cases, where an Administrator has protected a page, the link labeled "Edit" is replaced by the text "View source". In that case, the page can only be edited by an administrator. Protection of an image page includes protection of the image itself.

### Edit conflicts

If someone else makes an edit while you are making yours, the result is an edit conflict. Many conflicts can be automatically resolved by the Wiki. If it can't be resolved, however, you will need to resolve it yourself. The Wiki gives you two text boxes, where the top one is the other person's edit and the bottom one is your edit. Merge your edits into the top edit box, which is the only one that will be saved.

### Reverting

The edit link of a page showing an old version leads to an edit page with the old wikitext. This is a useful way to restore the old version of a page. However, the edit link of a diff page gives the current wikitext, even if the diff page shows an old version below the table of differences.

### Error messages

If you get an error message upon saving a page, you can't tell whether the actual save has failed or just the confirmation. You can go back and save again, and the second save will have no effect, or you can check "My contributions" to see whether the edit went through.

### Checking spelling and editing in your favorite editor

You may find it more convenient to copy and paste the text first into your favorite text editor, edit and spell check it there, and then paste it back into your web browser to preview. This way, you can also keep a local backup copy of the pages you have edited. It also allows you to make changes offline.
If you edit this way, it's best to leave the editing page open after you copy from it, using the same edit box to submit your changes, so that the usual edit conflict mechanism can deal with it. If you return to the editing page later, please make sure that nobody else has edited the page in the meantime. If someone has, you'll need to merge their edits into yours by using the diff feature in the page history.