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carcinoma is a type of cancer that arises in the cells that form the inner or outer surfaces of the body.  It is the most common type of cancer in humans.  However, the term is often used to describe cancer's where the origin of the tissue is unknown.  

Some examples of carcinomas are adenocarcinomasquamous cell carcinomaanaplastic carcinomalarge cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma.

Carcinomas are the most common forms of cancer of the lungs (98% of cases), breastprostate glandlarge intestine and pancreas.

Carcinoma at Wikipedia