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A colonoscopy is a medical procedure where a large tube is inserted through the anus and rectum into the large intestine to allow viewing instruments to be placed in the tube to allow the physician to examine the large intestine for any blockages or growths. It is an important diagnostic tool for many diseases of the large intestine including colon cancer.

However, the procedure is also one of the most invasive and uncomfortable procedures for a patient as it is done without an anesthetic and usually lasts for a considerable period of time.

It is possible to do a virtual colonoscopy with a CT Scan, but although this procedure is much less invasive, it is also far more expensive.

Colonoscopy at Wikipedia