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Gynecology is the medical specialty that deals with diseases and conditions of the female reproductive system.  It is usually practiced together with obstetrics.  A specialist in the field is a gynecologist.  

Gynecology is arguably the oldest medical specialty.  The oldest known medical text of any kind dates to 1,800 B.C.E. is on the subject of fertility, pregnancy and contraception.  The field was already well established and the school of Hippocrates published several works on the subject that pre-dated Hippocrates himself.  

Gynecology relies heavily on medical history and physical examination, moreso than other medical specialities, which usually rely on lab tests.  Because if it's nature, it requires a physician with an excellent bedside manner.

Gynecologist typically deal with cancers of the reproductive system, incontinence, failure to menstruate, painful menstruation, heavy menstruation, infertility, prolapse of the reproductive organs and infections of the reproductive tract.